During the 1988-1989 La Niña episode northeastern Argentina, southern Brazil, and
Uruguay suffered a severe drought. The meteorological services of the region were receiving an
increasing number of requests for forecasts of when rain could be expected. Responding to those
requests the meteorological services of the region (Uruguay being first) formally asked for
assistance from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP), then known as the
National Meteorological Center, for long-range guidance on the prospects of rain. In response,
Dr. Ronald McPherson, NCEP Director, asked Harlan Saylor, a retired National Weather Service
(NWS) executive with extensive forecasting experience, and NCEP climate expert Dr. Vernon
Kousky to meet daily to assess the NCEP Medium-Range Forecast model (MRF) guidance and
prepare discussions and outlooks out to five days in advance. Mary Kayano, a visiting scientist
from Brazil, also participated in the preparation of the initial discussions and outlooks.
Eventually these discussions were distributed via the Global Telecommunications System (GTS)
and expanded to include a monthly status report on El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO).
The formal request for assistance was also transmitted to the NWS International
Activities Office (IA). This initiated a series of meetings between IA and NCEP representatives,
which led to the establishment of the South American Desk at the NCEP Weather
Prediction Center (WPC) in Camp Springs, Maryland. The purpose of this Desk was to prepare
regular discussions of the MRF guidance and to provide training for forecasters from South
America. At first is was viewed as a temporary Desk, which would be phased out once
forecasters from the various countries had been trained, but the favorable results and comments
from the original cadre of meteorologists led to the permanent establishment of the South
American Desk. The mission was expanded to include the Caribbean Basin countries and
Mexico with the establishment of the Tropical Desk in 1992.
The WPC International Desk Inauguration Ceremony was celebrated on World
Meteorological Day on March 23, 1993 and called "The Dedication of the International Desks" at
the NOAA Science Center. The ceremony was led by Department of Commerce Deputy Under
Secretary Diana Josephson and NOAA Assistant Administrator for Weather Services Joe Friday.
In 1997 the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia sent a formal request through the US State
Department to the NWS requesting a team of subject experts be sent to do an assessment of their
Meteorological and Environmental Protection Agency (MEPA). The team did a thorough
evaluation of their communications, operational procedures, and meteorological operations. As
part of the final evaluation, a recommendation was made to establish a Saudi Arabian desk to
build on the success of the other desks at NCEP. The desk was subsequently established in 1998.
WPC International Desks Mission
The mission of the WPC International Desks is to provide visiting scientists
meteorological training with an emphasis on the operational use and application of numerical
model products. During the training, the visiting fellows are exposed to a broad spectrum of
meteorological products and analysis and forecasting techniques. In the early days of the
International Desks the home meteorological services had very limited access to some of the
numerical data of other countries. Advances in satellite communications, however, have now
brought them full access to most of these products. The World Area Forecast System (WAFS),
sponsored by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), is one of the
telecommunications systems providing this access, bringing the data directly to all users.
Thus, at the International Desks we are developing a cadre of meteorologists who are
familiar with the latest weather products. In this process we are making sure they know how to
use and apply these products to their local and general areas of interest.
Benefits to the Global Community
The benefits of having a cadre of well trained meteorologists are innumerable. For
example, the U.S. consumes a lot of produce from these regions, which directly depend on
accurate forecasting for successful crops. These forecasters are also a key element in providing
personnel and material protection, as they gain better understanding of the dynamical processes.
They also contribute to the safety and protection of U.S. interests abroad. Hundreds of flights,
local and international carriers, originate daily in the Caribbean Basin and South America. The
safety of U.S. citizens depends on proper support, as provided by the International Desks and
Furthermore, NCEP benefits from the participation of these Fellows. Our global models
are constantly revised, with each of the changes requiring a thorough evaluation. A change or
modification in the model that reaps some benefits over a particular region, could result in less
than favorable benefits over other regions on the globe. Although computers can do an objective
analysis, they cannot do a subjective analysis. The visiting Fellows bring knowledge and
expertise from their region which we use to evaluate the models, thus allowing us to identify and
correct substantial problems with the models.
Feedback from the participating countries has been immensely positive and the demand
for training and interaction with the International Desks has shown no abatement. There is no
doubt the Fellows benefit as individuals, as do their home organizations.
WPC International Desk Instructors
South American Desk Instructors: Mr. Jose Garcia, Mr. Harlan Saylor, Mr. John Toohey-Morales, and Dr. Vernon Kousky were the first to build the South American Desk. They
developed the Desk and gained financial support from NWS Headquarters management and the
US State Department.
South American and Tropical Desk Instructors: Mr. Joe Ships and Mr. John Tomko. Although
the Tropical Desk officially started operations in March 1993, the first fellows arrived in
May 1993 to present
Mr. Mike Davison serves as the International Desks Coordinator. He is tasked to improve the
application and use of numerical weather prediction resources across WMO regions III and IV.
WPC International Desk Milestones
November 1, 1988
First South American Fellow: Mr. Prakki Satyamurty (Brazil), 11/01/88 - 04/01/89
November 9, 1992
First Tropical Desk Fellow: Mr. Pedro E. Reyes Zavala (Honduras), 11/09/92 - 02/28/93
March 23, 1993
The WPC International Desk Inauguration Ceremony was celebrated on the World
Meteorological Day on March 23, 1993, and called "The Dedication of the International Desks"
at the NOAA Science Center, Camp Springs, Maryland.
The International Desks received the first version of the N-AWIPS software and UNIX
workstations. They became the test bed of what later became the operational software for data
display and product generation at all NCEP centers.
Mr. Mike Davison attended the WMO RA III conference in Asuncion, Paraguay. He gave a
presentation in Spanish on the capabilities of the desks and how it can assist domestic weather
services. Since that presentation there has been a strong demand for training slots at the South
American Desk, with a waiting list of 12 months.
Mr. Davison attended the RA III/RA IV Training Workshop in San Jose, Costa Rica. He gave
presentations on tropical weather forecasting and reliability of NWP guidance. After the
conference, the waiting list at the Tropical Desk increased to 24 months.
WPC International Desks supported the development efforts of the World Area Forecast System,
with the Desk Coordinator attending conferences and seminars. He promoted alternate means of
communications and data accessibility, with the PCGRIDDS software becoming the system of
choice for data ingest and forecasting across the region.
Mr. Davison visited the Meteorological and Environmental Protection Agency of the Kingdom of
Saudi Arabia, as part of a panel of experts that visited the forecast center. One of the
recommendations from this panel was to create a Saudi Desk in the WPC.
Mr. Wilson Munch from Uruguay became the 100th fellow to train at the International Desks.
The International Desks operations expanded to include the Saudi Arabian Desk. The position of
Director of the International Desks was created and Mr. Davison selected as the leader.
First Saudi meteorologists arrived.
"Technological Revolution" makes computers accessible and affordable to all. The regional
meteorological services take advantage of this to modernize their offices. Internet provides ready
access to model output, which allows transition from purely subjective weather forecasting to
Dr. Mohan Karyampudi appointed as the Saudi Desk Coordinator.
Mr. Davison leads a WMO/ICAO Training Workshop in Mexico City, Mexico. He noticed a
remarkable improvement in capabilities and understanding of meteorological dynamics among