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Quantitative Precipitation Forecast (QPF) Discussion
 
(Caution: Version displayed is not the latest version. - Issued 2056Z Apr 20, 2015)
 
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Abbreviations and acronyms used in this product
 
Geographic Boundaries -  Map 1: Color  Black/White       Map 2: Color  Black/White


QUANTITATIVE PRECIPITATION FORECAST DISCUSSION
NWS WEATHER PREDICTION CENTER COLLEGE PARK MD
456 PM EDT MON APR 20 2015


PRELIM DAY 1...DAY 2 AND DAY 3 QPF DISCUSSION
VALID APR 21/0000 UTC THRU APR 24/0000 UTC
REFERENCE AWIPS GRAPHICS UNDER...PRECIP ACCUM - 24HR



DAY 1...

...GREAT LAKES/OH VALLEY INTO THE NORTHERN MID ATLANTIC AND NEW
ENGLAND STATES...

A BROAD UPPER TROUGH REMAINS CENTERED ALONG THE MS VALLEY WITH A
DEEP UPPER LOW POSITIONED NEAR THE SOUTHERN MANITOBA/ONTARIO
BORDER.  A SURFACE LOW...ANCHORING A LARGE OCCLUDED
FRONT...CONTINUES TO LIFT INTO NORTHERN MICHIGAN.  WARM ADVECTION
PRECIPITATION MOVING ACROSS SOUTHERN NEW ENGLAND THIS AFTERNOON IS
EXPECTED TO CONTINUE SPREADING TO THE NORTH AND EAST AS SEVERAL
SHORTWAVES EMBEDDED WITHIN THE LEADING EDGE OF THE LARGER TROUGH
LIFT THROUGH THE EASTERN U.S.  AS ONE OF THE MORE DEFINED
SHORTWAVES MOVING THROUGH THE BROADER SCALE FLOW LOW PIVOTS ACROSS
THE OH VALLEY INTO THE NORTHERN MID-ATLANTIC...MODERATE TO LOCALLY
HEAVY RAINS ARE EXPECTED TO DEVELOP ALONG THE NORTHERN NEW ENGLAND
COAST BACK INTO THE OROGRAPHICALLY FAVORED INTERIOR REGIONS LATER
TODAY.  STRONG SOUTHEASTERLY FLOW IS FORECAST TO DEVELOP AHEAD OF
AN ASSOCIATED TRIPLE POINT LOW DEVELOPING NEAR THE NORTHERN
MID-ATLANTIC/SOUTHERN NEW ENGLAND COAST THIS EVENING. COINCIDING
WITH 50+ KT 850 MB WINDS...PWS EXCEEDING AN INCH ACROSS SOUTHERN
NEW ENGLAND AND ALONG THE NORTHERN NEW ENGLAND COAST ARE EXPECTED
TO SUPPORT MODERATE TO LOCALLY HEAVY RAINS...WITH THE MODELS
SHOWING WIDESPREAD SUPPORT FOR 1-2 INCH AREAL AVERAGES ALONG THE
NORTHERN NEW ENGLAND COAST BACK INTO THE MOUNTAINS OF NORTHERN NEW
HAMPSHIRE AND MAINE.

FURTHER TO THE SOUTH FROM THE OH VALLEY THROUGH THE MID
ATLANTIC..THE AFOREMENTIONED SHORTWAVE IS EXPECTED SUPPORT THE
DEVELOPMENT OF ORGANIZED...BUT FAST-MOVING...CONVECTION ALONG THE
COLD FRONT...PRODUCING SOME LOCALLY HEAVY AMOUNTS ACROSS THE
REGION. 

...FLORIDA...

ASSOCIATED WITH A SUBTROPICAL SHORTWAVE...CONVECTION FIRING OVER
THE EASTERN GULF INTO NORTH FLORIDA IS EXPECTED TO MOVE ACROSS THE
PENINSULA THIS EVENING.  SUPPORTED BY DEEP SOUTHWESTERLY
FLOW...DRAWING DEEP MOISTURE FROM THE SOUTHERN GULF...PWS ARE
EXPECTED TO INCREASE TO AT OR ABOVE 1.75 INCHES ACROSS MUCH OF
CENTRAL AND SOUTHERN FL...RAISING THE POTENTIAL FOR MODERATE TO
HEAVY RAINS.

...WESTERN U.S....

UNDERCUTTING THE LONGSTANDING RIDGE IN THE WEST...A BROAD
SHORTWAVE TROUGH IS EXPECTED TO DROP INTO SOUTHERN CA...CLOSING
OFF A MID-UPPER LEVEL CENTER OVER SOUTHERN CA BY EARLY TUE.  THIS
IS EXPECTED TO ENCOURAGE AT LEAST SOME SCATTERED...GENERALLY LIGHT
AMOUNTS FROM THE SOUTHERN CASCADES...SOUTH ALONG THE SIERRA INTO
THE COASTAL RANGES OF SOUTHERN CA.

DAYS 2/3...

...UPPER MS VALLEY/GREAT LAKES REGION/OH VALLEY AND MID
ATLANTIC/NORTHEAST...

SEVERAL MID LEVEL WAVES ROTATING AROUND A DEEP LAYERED LOW WILL BE
THE FOCUS FOR QPF.  THE MODEL AGREEMENT WAS GOOD IN THE BIG
PICTURE AND WITH RESPECT TO SOME OF THE STRONGER IMPULSES.  GIVEN
THE SIMILAR SOLNS BETWEEN THE GFS AND THE ECMWF...MANUAL WPC PROGS
WERE GENERALLY BASED UPON THOSE TWO MODELS.  THIS RESULTS IN ONE
AREA OF PCPN OVER NEW ENGLAND AT THE START OF THE DAY 2 PERIOD
WHICH HEADS NORTH AND EAST QUICKLY.  OTHER AREAS OF GENERALLY
LIGHT PCPN ON DAY 2 WILL LINGER OVER PARTS OF THE UPPER MIDWEST
AND WESTERN GREAT LAKES REGION DUE AS MOISTURE CAUGHT IN THE BROAD
CIRCULATION OF THE MID/UPPER LOW CIRCULATES OVER THE AREA...WITH
SOME LIGHT LAKE ENHANCEMENT GIVEN COLD LOW/MID LEVEL TEMPS. A
SHORTWAVE TROF EMBEDDED IN THE FAST MID LEVEL FLOW SCOOTS ACROSS
THE OH...INDUCING SURFACE LOW PRESSURE TO FORM WITH A
CORRESPONDING INCREASE IN AREAL COVERAGE OF PCPN AMOUNTS ACROSS
THE OH VALLEY.

PCPN WILL CONTINUE TO EXPAND IN AREAL COVERAGE DURING THE DAY ON
WEDNESDAY AND INTO WEDNESDAY EVENING AS IT CURVES NORTHEAST AROUND
THE PERIPHERY OF THE UPPER SYSTEM.  THE COMBINATION OF INCREASED
DIVERGENCE ALOFT...THE APPROACH OF A VORT MAX IN THE MID LEVELS
AND STRENGTHENING FLOW AT LOW LEVELS RESULTS IN PCPN BECOMING EVEN
BETTER ORGANIZED ON THU OVER PARTS OF THE NORTHEAST WHERE OVER
HALF AN INCH OF LIQUID IS FORECAST ON DAY 3.


...FL...

MOISTURE AND INSTABILITY FOCUS ON A FRONTAL BOUNDARY THAT SAGS
ACROSS CENTRAL AND SOUTHERN FL DURING DAYS 2 AND 3. FOR THE MOST
PART...THERE WAS GOOD MODEL AGREEMENT WITH RESPECT TO THE POSITION
OF THE FRONT...BUT THERE WAS SOME MODEL SPREAD ON THE PLACEMENT OF
THE QPF MAXIMA. TO MITIGATE SOME OF THE DIFFERENCES...THE WPC QPF
WAS BASED ON A BLEND OF THE MOST RECENT ECMWF/GFS.

SHOWERS AND THUNDERSTORMS WILL GENERALLY OCCUR DURING FROM THE
AFTERNOON INTO THE EARLY EVENING WHEN THE STATIC STABILITY
PARAMETERS ARE MOST UNSTABLE DUE TO INSOLATION.  GIVEN
PRECIPITABLE WATER VALUES TOPPING OUT AROUND 1.75
INCHES...CONVECTION SHOULD GENERALLY RESULT IN A SWATH OF 0.25 TO
0.50 INCHES ACROSS THE CENTRAL PENINSULA ON WEDNESDAY...AND SOME
ONE INCH AMOUNTS EXPECT OVER THE SOUTHEAST PENINSULA ON THURSDAY. 
GIVEN THE ALIGNMENT OF THE FRONT AND THE LOW/MID LEVEL FLOW...IT
WAS FELT THAT THERE WOULD BE A BETTER CHANCE FOR SOME HEAVY
DOWNPOURS DURING THE DAY ON THURSDAY DUE TO THE POSSIBILITY OF
CONVECTION INTERACTING WITH THE SEA BREEZE.


...SOUTHERN PLAINS...

A SHORT WAVE DROPPING SOUTHEAST FROM THE WESTERN HI PLAINS AT THE
START OF DAY WILL HELP INITIATE SCATTERED CONVECTION ACROSS THE
SOUTHERN PLAINS  ALONG A LOW LEVEL BOUNDARY ON WEDNESDAY.  THE
BOUNDARY IS EXPECTED TO EXTEND FROM THE WESTERN OK PANHANDLE TO
NORTH OF THE RED RIVER VALLEY ON DAY 2. A SOUTHWEST LOW LEVEL JET
WILL HELP TRANSPORTS PRECIPITABLE WATER VALUES NEAR AN INCH TO THE
FRONTAL BOUNDARY...AND MODEL SOUNDINGS SHOWED MODERATE TO STRONG
INSTABILITY CENTERED CLOSE TO THE BOUNDARY. THE 12Z NAM FORECAST
PW VALUES IN EXCESS OF 1.5 INCHES...AND CORRESPONDINGLY IT
GENERATED MORE ACTIVE CONVECTION WITH HIGHER RAFL AMOUNTS.  THE
12Z MODEL RUNS DID LITTLE TO HELP CLOSE THE GAP IN PLACING THE
FRONT ON DAY 3. 

WPC MANUAL GRAPHICS WERE DRAWN AS A HYBRID BETWEEN THE
NAM/GFS/ECMWF WITH LITTLE CONSIDERATION GIVEN TO THE NAM.  IT WAS
FELT THAT THE NAM SUFFRED FROM SEVERAL PROBLEMS...NAMELY THAT ITS
ACCELERATED H85 FLOW DREW MORE MOISTURE INTO PROXIMITY OF THE
FRONT.  THAT...COMBINED WITH A STRONGER WAVE AND SURFACE
REFLECTION RIDING ALONG THE FRONT...ENDED UP PRODUCING MORE QPF
THAN OTHER MODELS DESPITE RACING THE AREA OF PCPN EASTWARD FASTER
THAN OTHER MODELS.  THE GFS ALSO SEEMED TO MOVE TOO THE AREA OF
PCPN SOUTH / EAST TOO QUICKLY BUT IT WAS NOT ENTIRELY OUT OF THE
QUESTION GIVEN THE STATIC STABILITY PARAMERS WHICH WAS WHY IT WAS
GIVEN SOME CONSIDERATION.  WHILE NOT DRAWN TO THE 12Z UKMET
SOLN...THERE WAS SOME DEGREE OF SIMILARITY BETWEEN THE UKMET AND
THE WPC MANUAL QPF HERE. 

THREE HOUR FLASH FLOOD GUIDANCE VALUES WHERE GENERALLY RANGE
BETWEEN 2.50 AND 3.50 INCHES...SO WHILE HEAVY RAINFALL IS EXPECTED
WITH THE CONVECTION...ORGANIZED FLASH FLOODING IS NOT EXPECTED AT
THIS TIME. 


...CA INTO THE SOUTHWESTERN STATES...

A CLOSED MID LEVEL WILL BE FILLING AS IT MAKES ITS WAY ACROSS
SOUTHERN CAL TUE EVENING BEFORE STARTING TO CURVE NORTH INTO NV BY
WEDNESDAY MORNING.  A SECOND SHORTWAVE DROPPING SOUTH ALONG THE CA
COAST WILL RELOAD THE MID LEVEL TROF FROM LATE WED INTO THU. 
GIVEN THE TRAJECTORY OF THE SECOND MID LEVEL VORT MAX...THE BEST
ONSHORE FLOW GETS FOCUSED SOUTH OF THE INTERNATIONAL BORDER.  EVEN
SO...STEEPENING MID LEVEL LAPSE RATES AND PW VALUES IN THE 0.5 TO
0.75 INCH RANGE CAN HELP SUPPORT SCATTERED SHOWERS WHICH PRODUCE
0.10 TO 0.25 INCHES OF PCPN IN THE CENTRAL/SOUTHERN SIERRA NEVADA
RANGE AS WELL AS PARTS OF NV.  FARTHER SOUTH...THE HIGHER
RESOLUTION VERSIONS OF THE ECMWF AND NAM BOTH SUGGEST ISOLATED TO
WIDELY SCATTERED SHOWERS ARE POSSIBLE ALONG THE SOUTH CA COAST
WITH GENERALLY LIGHT AMOUNTS. 

THE NAM SEEMED TO ALLOW TOO MUCH INTERACTION BETWEEN THE TWO
SHORTWAVES...RESULTING IN A STRONGER SHORTWAVE COMING
ASHORE...WHILE THE 20/12Z ECWMF WAS ON THE SLOW SIDE OF THE
GUIDANCE.  CONSEQUENTLY WE ENDED UP USING ENSEMBLE MEANS FOR
PLACING THE QPF AND WE USED A CONSENSUS VALUE AMONG THE MODELS IN
CHOOSING THE RAFL AMOUNT. 


...NORTHWEST...

ONE MID LEVEL SHORTWAVE SHOULD BE COMING ONSHORE OVER WA TUE EVE
AS THE DAY 2 FORECAST BEGINS.  ONSHORE FLOW AHEAD OF THE TROF
SHOULD USHER PRECIPITABLE WATER VALUES NEAR 0.50 TO THE COAST BY
EARLY WEDNESDAY EVENING...WITH THE AXIS OF DEEPEST PRECIPITABLE
WATER VALUES TRACKING EAST IN ASSOCIATION WITH THE WAVE. 
STEEPENING MID LEVEL LAPSE RATES AND THE AVAILABLE MOISTURE SHOULD
AID IN PRODUCING MAINLY LATE DAY CONVECTION OVER AND NEAR THE
HIGHER ELEVATIONS. LOCALIZED RAFL AMOUNTS OF 0.10 TO 0.25 INCH QPF
ARE POSSIBLE ACROSS THE WA CASCADES AND THE BLUE MOUNTAINS IN
OR...AND ISOLATED AMOUNTS ON THE ORDER 0.10 QPF AMOUNTS ARE
POSSIBLE OVER THE HIGHER TERRAIN OF NORTHERN ID AND WESTERN MT.


PEREIRA/BANN

GRAPHICS AVAILABLE ON THE WEB AT www.wpc.ncep.noaa.gov/qpf/qpf2.shtml

24HR QP VT 22/00Z
 0.01 565894 561903 557907 554912 551915 549919 544928 539937
      536945 525958 520963 512968 504972 493973 487972 483970
      479968 476964 472959 469954 467949 454935 443921 438913
      434906 430897 430891 432886 434883 437880 447875 450872
      453867 451865 448865 444865 440866 436862 433854 432850
      434845 434841 432841 430840 426843 422848 419847 416852
      415853 412848 410843 408839 404830 399823 394824 390823
      386825 384829 381832 380835 379838 380842 382847 385850
      386857 387868 384879 383889 382895 382902 381908 381916
      382931 382937 383945 383952 384956 388967 389979 388981
      385979 380961 377956 373961 370963 366963 365953 360952
      356952 354952 353949 355944 358934 362923 364912 365904
      365896 365888 366882 366876 368871 370860 372850 364847
      356848 354846 351842 350838 350834 352828 354824 357820
      369807 381795 386788 386785 384786 380788 372794 365801
      356806 348810 344812 342815 336821 329826 324831 319838
      316841 312841 315830 317827 319821 324814 327807 331799
      336791 341782 343777 339776 334776 330779 324788 321793
      313792 309793 307797 304805 301815 298819 294820 286826
      282831 281836 279839 278843 277853 280875 281900 281906
      279911 276920 271938 271943 273947 276955 276960 277966
      279970 279974 281979 281984 277991 275001 273009 269013
      264013 260017 254017 249010 246006 242003 236002 234999
      233995 232988 232983 234979 236968 236962 238958 236950
      235946 235939 233934 234929 234923 235918 236905 237882
      238877 238872 239864 242854 246843 247837 247831 248827
      248821 249801 252783 257777 261771 266763 271758 282753
      287745 292738 299732 310719
 0.01 310719 316710 320704 323699 332693 336689 341684 349677
      359670 367662 372658 379656 392652 398652 405650 411648
      416644 421640 425635
 0.01 525682 519678 514672 508666 503658 497651 492643 487635
      479633 471632 464632 455630 447629 444629
 0.01 525254 521251 519247 519242 520240 522237 534220 537215
      538207 535198 530196 526197 520202 515214 511223 506223
      502220 499216 494215 492216 489215 486212 480216 493230
      490236 484234 480231 475232 471233 469235 465239 459237
      442240 437240 432241 432244 434246 439247 463246 464250
      459251 455253 452256 448257 439259 435259 431262 428266
      428272 430277 434279 434286 437292 445295 461293 493282
      499280 505284 510286 516284
 0.01 526166 523160 520156 517155 516153 512152 511149 506145
      505143 502142 499141 498144 501147 506153 510157 513160
      518164 519167 522168 526166
 0.01 484250 482248 481248 479247 477248 475250 477252 478253
      480253 482252 484250
 0.01 493148 494143 493140 489135 484131 481127 478127 476129
      472133 470138 477139 480138 483140 486146 489150 493148
 0.01 466105 463102 458101 456103 455100 454098 450094 445092
      438089 433091 428087 424089 427095 430097 429101 425105
      428106 434105 443111 444105 444101 448104 453105 455103
      458103 460106 463107 466105
 0.01 450220 450215 447214 440213 432211 428206 425201 420200
      414200 410204 407206 404205 401201 395196 388194 378187
      379183 372181 359180 354182 351184 351186 364192 372194
      376198 378201 381203 385206 394208 398213 406221 405225
      403227 396225 394227 395229 399232 406232 413235 420235
      423230 427225 432222 437223 442220 448222 450220
 0.01 450078 450075 449073 448071 447070 445068 443068 442067
      440067 438069 437071 438073 439073 441074 442074 443075
      444076 446077 448080 449079 450078
 0.01 426060 420060 417059 416056 414054 411054 407054 398050
      392047 389045 385047 384049 381049 377046 373041 374034
      379024 381018 380010 377997 373987 368974 363963 358959
      353958 349958 350953 347942 344937 340932 332924 328924
      326929 326947 324960 321965 319971 321983 326988 330991
      334993 337993 339991 344002 349005 353008 353012 352015
      348020 346024 348031 355038 362039 367041 369044 366047
      362052 357053 356055 356058 357059 358063 359069 362069
      362067 365066 368067 371068 373070 373078 375083 379084
      380081 383073 384071 387070 392073 396071 399072 401070
      406073 408075 411075 415071 422067 426060
 0.01 425812 425810 426808 424806 423808 422809 422811 422813
      422815 421816 420818 420820 420823 419829 420829 421831
      424822 423820 424817 424815 425815 425812
 0.01 409112 409103 408096 402104 397101 397105 395103 396106
      395107 393105 393109 391111 387111 384111 382112 378115
      374119 373123 373125 376131 382131 386126 391124 398113
      405114 409112
 0.01 400141 400139 397138 395140 393142 391142 387143 387145
      389148 390148 392149 394147 396149 397150 398148 400143
      400141
 0.01 393174 393172 393170 394168 393167 394167 394165 392163
      391162 389164 387166 386166 386168 386171 387173 387175
      389178 391176 393174 393174
 0.01 396096 396094 396092 396089 397087 397085 396085 395087
      394087 394089 394091 394094 394096 392098 394098 396096
      396096
 0.01 351204 351201 349198 349194 350190 348187 347187 344187
      341188 340190 340192 341195 342197 345200 347201 349204
      351204
 0.01 344184 345182 345180 345178 345176 345173 345171 345169
      345168 343166 341168 340170 339172 340174 340175 340177
      340179 341181 342182 343183 344184 344184
 0.25 556856 556845 555836 552820 550804 547790 542777 537767
      531756 526746 520734 516730 512728 509725 507718 503708
      501699 501691 501677 500669 499666 497663 491665 487660
      485653 482647 477645 472645 464644 460643 455641 446636
      442637 437640 429646 418652 408659 397663 386668 376673
      369678 362685 349705 342715 340719 346720 356716 365712
      371710 377707 387705 395704 406705 411709 412714 412718
      413726 412733 400748 395757 392762 392769 394772 399771
      401769 407768 410772 423767 427769 433766 442761 446761
      450765 457769 461771 466771 471772 479771 488773 493775
      499778 506782 510786 512792 514797 515803 515810 515821
      514827 512834 510840 505843 501842 498839 492840 488846
      482855 480859 479866 479882 480898 482904 482910 484917
      488922 496929 505937 510938 516938 521937 526934 532929
      539922 544914 549902 552895 554887 556872 556856
 0.25 516264 516263 515261 514259 514258 513256 513255 512253
      511252 511251 509250 508251 508254 509254 510257 511260
      512263 512264 513266 514266 515266 516264
 0.25 389201 387200 386198 384196 383195 381194 379193 378193
      376194 377195 378196 379197 380198 382199 382200 384201
      385202 387202 389201 389201
 0.25 397798 393797 390799 388800 385802 383804 382806 382808
      384809 386809 389807 390805 392803 394800 397798
 0.25 391755 395747 391748 388753 384758 379760 373758 370761
      369763 370772 369779 369784 372785 377781 381777 384772
      388767 390760 391755
 0.25 373188 371187 370185 368185 366184 364184 366186 367187
      369188 371188 373189 373188
 0.25 365027 366025 366023 366021 366019 366016 365015 365014
      363013 361012 360014 359016 359017 360018 361020 361022
      361023 362025 363026 364027 365027
 0.25 321763 322757 320754 315749 313748 309749 304751 299754
      292756 281763 272774 269778 268784 267788 263790 259791
      256793 255800 258806 260809 260813 259819 258825 257833
      256839 254846 249857 247870 246884 244899 242913 241923
      242932 244938 244946 243961 242970 243978 240983 238986
      238990 241994 246997 250001 256004 263001 264999 265994
      268977 268969 266962 266953 266943 266927 267919 267910
      267902 267894 270863 270846 272832 275818 279813 280811
      282807 284800 285798 288796 292791 296788 302785 307781
      310775 315771 319767 321763
 0.50 552870 553860 552851 551835 547819 544806 539794 536790
      532788 529790 528793 530798 532805 533814 534821 534827
      531841 527852 523863 519876 516887 514894 515902 516909
      518915 521918 526919 530917 534913 541906 544901 546895
      549884 552870
 0.50 507743 504735 500729 491724 486720 482723 482728 480732
      475729 473727 474723 479719 484707 488694 488690 485689
      484684 482685 471695 467699 464706 461713 461717 457718
      452718 453713 460700 464687 467681 472677 477673 479669
      479665 478658 474655 464652 457650 452646 448644 443643
      441642 438645 433650 422656 414664 409669 401672 394673
      386675 376680 370685 366690 366694 367696 373699 380698
      388697 400695 409693 416693 418695 418700 418707 418713
      420718 425721 427728 431728 438726 444726 447727 449730
      449741 455747 459751 471750 480748 486749 496751 501751
      505749 507743
 0.50 419740 417739 414740 411743 408746 404749 401753 400756
      398761 399765 404764 408763 410758 411753 413750 416745
      418743 419740
 0.50 304768 304763 301763 294765 290768 285771 280775 277779
      275784 280787 285785 290780 294778 299774 302770 304768
 0.50 273805 272801 268798 264796 260795 259795 256799 259803
      261805 264811 266814 268810 271808 273805
 0.50 269826 269822 268820 266817 264817 264819 263821 262825
      262829 263833 264836 266835 267833 269829 269826
 0.50 264894 257876 253887 251897 250905 249909 245919 245927
      246933 247938 248945 246972 247977 247980 246983 243987
      244992 254996 258996 260990 260983 261977 262971 262964
      261935 260923 261911 262901 264894
 1.00 460666 458662 455661 449660 444658 441652 436656 433662
      436670 437680 435688 432694 429700 428704 430706 434712
      436715 439715 445712 449707 453700 455693 454685 454681
      454678 460666
 1.00 252972 253970 253968 252966 251968 250970 251972 252972
      252972
 1.50 449679 449675 447671 444677 442683 439688 436694 434701
      435705 438707 442706 446702 449697 449692 448687 449679
 2.00 443691 441691 441692 440694 439697 440698 442697 443696
      443693 443692 443691 

24HR QP VT 23/00Z
 0.01 480616 485619 487622 493628 499635 504645 512665 514670
      515679 517687 519693 520702 522708 526719 530727 532733
      533740 535745 536752 539765 546792 552817 554833 557846
      558851 559860 560865 560874 560883 560889 559897 558903
      558911 556917 550923 539923 536925 530926 522929 516930
      512931 505934 496934 490934 487932 482932 480928 477925
      473923 469922 465919 462915 461911 458906 457901 456891
      456886 457883 458879 457874 455870 453866 450863 445865
      440864 435864 433862 434857 438854 441851 443850 444846
      448836 451826 456826 459830 461833 462839 465850 471859
      476865 479867 481865 482861 480859 477855 474853 471851
      469845 468841 468837 470833 473830 486818 504810 508807
      513806 517806 519808 520810 522808 519794 515784 510776
      505766 495750 492748 489751 488757 487763 485773 484779
      481783 478792 474801 470801 465799 462798 459799 457804
      444819 433814 430813 429804 432796 436787 441779 446771
      443767 438769 430785 426794 422801 419807 418813 413821
      412816 414811 413805 416800 417798 416794 413792 410801
      408804 404807 400809 397814 397821 394833 391835 388841
      388847 388852 387859 386861 386864 387881 386888 381890
      382899 386909 388918 386930 387937 388943 388957 386969
      384972 381972 379972 378974 378977 378981 379991 377003
      378018 377022 378026 383034 382047 384049 387048 390044
      398051 411046 415048 418051 423052 425053 427056 426061
      423062 420061 418062 418065 419070 418075 415081 414088
      417092 416095 412094 409090 409085 410081 409079 407079
      405084 403082 401084 398087 397083 393082 390086 389091
      385091 384087 382083 377080 375078 375070 372067 369065
      364063 368061 378061 381059 382056 380054 375054 370055
      365054 361052 361047 360043 359036 359034 355026 351022
      346020 340017 337013 337012 340006 338001 333995 329985
      322980 315974 308964 304958 301947
 0.01 301947 302945 303939 306932 311926 317917 323900 324890
      327880 333863 336858 338854 339850 339843 344836 346833
      347827 347822 351820 355818 358814 363807 365798 368777
      369770 372767 377762 388748 412722 437697 442696 446697
      449697 453700 455702 457700 452691 447683 442674 432660
      427648 422637
 0.01 537213 539203 540194 540185 540181 539178 537173 534169
      528158 526154 523149 518145 514146 510148 505145 501146
      498143 492135 490129 486125 479117 471120 462119 459120
      456119 454113 455098 452091 447089 436088 433090 430087
      426085 426092 428096 434105 437107 440106 444104 446102
      449104 449109 448113 449118 448123 442132 439136 439142
      442147 445151 449153 452151 454145 458140 462138 466140
      468142 469147 467149 464149 457156 452163 448169 447175
      447178 442181 441185 443191 440195 435198 425197 420194
      417199 416207 419211 422216 420218 417217 395196 391192
      386190 389185 390183 386184 383185 381183 377179 370179
      369180 366178 364175 360172 361177 361182 359181 356182
      358185 362188 372193 379200 389208 394209 396212 400223
      392227 392231 393234 396235 409237 413236 412230 415226
      417224 420225 420229 422231 422233 420234 416236 415239
      417241 423243 427245 431243 432241 433236 436232 440229
      444228 449227 458225 461226 462224 464221 466222 472222
      477221 483223 488223 491222 492225 494230 498242 504250
      510260 513258 516253 517237 522227 527226 531222 535218
      537213
 0.01 532034 532026 531021 527013 524009 519008 516006 511005
      508003 503002 500003 498008 499013 501017 506025 509028
      512032 515035 518036 528038 532034
 0.01 497255 497252 496250 495249 494248 493247 492245 491244
      490242 490241 488241 488244 487246 488247 489248 490250
      490251 491253 492254 493255 495255 497256 497255
 0.01 490196 487189 483184 481177 477170 473170 471172 468178
      464184 462187 463191 459195 453197 449203 446203 444206
      440210 442214 446215 452215 455216 457218 459214 460209
      464211 470209 473204 475205 477204 480202 483203 487200
      490196
 0.01 495158 494156 492156 490155 489157 488157 487157 485156
      484156 482156 480155 479155 477157 478159 480160 482160
      483160 485160 487161 488161 490161 492160 493160 495158
 0.01 481239 481236 480234 480232 478232 476232 475234 475237
      475238 477239 478240 480240 481239
 0.01 432217 432215 430215 428216 429218 431217 432217
 0.01 420157 420152 419151 415151 412148 403150 400148 400143
      400141 397140 395142 391141 389142 389146 390148 388152
      390155 394161 390164 385168 384170 384173 389177 392178
      395177 397175 398171 400164 398162 400160 402157 406157
      409157 411159 413165 416161 420157
 0.01 420116 421112 418113 415113 412112 411109 410103 410096
      407093 405093 404096 402104 399107 394109 385113 381114
      378119 381124 386125 390124 394121 403117 415118 419118
      420116
 0.01 376230 376226 374225 373225 371222 371220 370217 371215
      369214 367214 367217 366220 366221 367224 369227 370230
      373231 376230
 0.01 372923 370911 369907 368900 368887 369882 367880 365881
      363878 360878 359881 356888 355894 355901 355914 356927
      359937 364931 367927 371925 372923
 0.01 349201 348199 348196 347194 347192 347189 345188 345189
      343190 343191 342193 343194 344195 344197 344198 345200
      345201 347201 349201 349201
 0.01 343182 345176 344171 342166 339166 334166 329165 330168
      333169 337168 340172 340177 342182 343182
 0.01 336194 337189 337187 335182 335180 334177 333175 331172
      329172 328177 328181 330182 331184 332188 331193 333195
      334195 336194
 0.01 320020 320013 318007 315998 310996 304995 295991 286987
      282988 277989 274990 271990 268986 264983 262981 259981
      246980 240981 235983 233986 232993 235998 238001 258008
      274019 296021 300022 305025 308028 312028 318024 320020
 0.01 294782 293768 291763 289758 285748 280738 276730 269736
      256750 250757 246765 243770 239773 236782 235786 237791
      242800 244804 243808 239819 236829 235840 236853 238864
      239870 241875 243879 244884 243889 243895 247905 255924
      257928 261929 267929 270929 272927 274924 274917 275913
      275907 275903 277898 280887 280873 282862 285839 291793
      294782
 0.25 471620 477628 483632 489638 494645 499653 504661 508672
      509687 512699 513712 512715 509711 506707 503706 496702
      491695 481680 475672 469667 464660 461648 458644 455641
      448638 444637 443630
 0.25 554876 555867 554859 551848 549843 546839 542839 540840
      533846 527852 521858 515866 511872 504878 499886 496896
      496904 498909 504914 508915 513914 522913 529909 537904
      543899 548892 552883 554876
 0.25 532203 532195 531192 532186 530178 527172 522168 519167
      517174 514181 514185 517188 520194 521199 525204 530205
      532203
 0.25 540812 540810 540809 539807 538806 536805 536808 535811
      535812 535813 535816 535818 536819 537819 538818 539817
      539815 540813 540812
 0.25 509235 511231 510228 509225 506222 505220 502217 501214
      499213 499215 500219 500222 501226 502229 503231 506234
      509235 509235
 0.25 460726 460724 459722 459721 457719 455720 454720 453720
      453723 453725 454726 456727 456728 457729 458730 460729
      460728 460726
 0.25 434749 434747 431746 429748 427750 425753 423756 422758
      423761 427762 430759 431757 432754 433751 434749
 0.25 399208 397206 396205 394204 392204 392207 393208 395208
      397209 399208
 0.25 396796 393794 390796 388797 385799 384802 382804 381807
      383807 385805 387803 388801 392799 393798 396796
 0.25 371005 372997 371991 368976 363966 358956 352947 349943
      347936 346922 345914 343908 342902 339897 336896 333898
      333904 332911 329916 325926 323934 323941 321948 321954
      322960 323965 326971 330974 334977 337982 343991 350999
      358007 361010 366012 370009 371005
 0.25 282786 282777 280768 278761 276755 274753 272755 269760
      267765 263772 261783 255795 253800 253809 256816 257824
      256831 254837 252851 252859 253868 256881 259887 262893
      264894 267894 270890 272877 276863 278849 279834 280818
      280803 282786
 0.50 546868 546860 544856 539858 537861 531867 524873 519880
      514889 513894 513899 516901 521901 529897 535892 541885
      544875 546868
 0.50 503678 503669 501663 495653 488645 481639 478637 473636
      471637 470640 471648 471655 472660 476662 482662 485665
      488670 489676 492682 496684 499684 502682 503678
 0.50 466632 466629 465628 463628 464630 465632 466632
 0.50 367003 367985 365977 362972 355960 351955 346952 341947
      336943 333946 332954 333961 335969 338974 342980 345985
      350990 354995 358999 363003 367003
 0.50 276784 276777 274770 271771 268775 266786 265791 262796
      257803 258805 260805 265804 268807 269814 270818 268822
      266835 263843 261849 260856 259862 258866 259872 261878
      263880 265876 264870 266867 271858 271845 271832 272820
      275809 275797 276784
 1.00 355978 355976 354974 353974 352971 350969 348968 348969
      347971 348974 349976 350977 350978 352979 353979 355978 

24HR QP VT 24/00Z
 0.01 475618 482622 485627 489636 492646 494658 493666 491676
      489685 488690 490695 492704 494715 494725 496749 497755
      496761 493769 488773 485773 482772 476768 471766 455737
      448723 443718 441714 437713 434713 430711 426708 417695
      407686 406682 404678 402678 399681 395682 392682 391678
      391674 391670 393663 398656 400651 404647 411640
 0.01 554138 555121 554113 553107 550104 546103 537098 521090
      516086 512078 510075 512072 511068 508056 497041 491035
      486027 483027 481029 477032 475038 475044 468050 463052
      457050 450044 447041 445036 434023 428020 426022 425027
      424035 423039 421039 418036 416029 413025 410023 406021
      410019 414016 416015 417012 419007 417001 416997 414994
      410991 406993 402994 399998 395008 395011 392011 389009
      381004 376997 373992 370988 368983 365975 365971 366968
      368961 372949 372942 371937 370930 368925 361910 358906
      356901 354888 348834 348823 350815 353806 354801 354796
      349795 346796 345798 340808 337814 335818 328824 323830
      319839 317843 317847 316853 313850 311838 310834 310830
      312825 315815 320808 330794 334789 337781 345763 349754
      354746 355741 358736 360726 359725 355728 348729 346732
      339739 331745 320760 315766 310771 305777 301776 296777
      293776 293774 295771 297759 296751 295744 291744 287746
      287734 286728 284723 276721 271723 269725 263732 259741
      258746 255750 253754 249753 243760 240766 239769 239774
      240784 242790 245793 244796 242793 239789 239795 238799
      240804 243807 247806 251816 255823 259832 260838 259842
      259848 262855 265864 269873 270878 272882 274893 280896
      284898 285901 287907 290912 293916 297918 301921 299924
      297935 295939 296946 297951 299954 305958 312963 318969
      324977 331984 337991 359012 364021 362031 362036 367039
      368041 368045 371050 374055 376060 375068 373073 372078
      373082 377083 382083 385081 385074 385068 385063 386061
      390058 393054 400050 397063 408075 409077 412078 415076
      416059 412058 409058 409055 410051 413048 417046 421047
      421051 423056 426059 429062 430067 428071 424073 420074
      418078 415082 411084
 0.01 411084 408091 405095 401099 399099 398102 395108 391112
      385115 381115 379117 381122 387123 392121 395122 397124
      400127 404124 404119 406117 408117 415118 418119 420122
      417127 415130 417136 422134 426128 430123 433119 436117
      439120 438125 436133 436138 439143 440144 443143 451134
      457122 459105 465093 469088 471086 472091 473099 473108
      480115 488124 491125 493127 498132 497135 494134 487132
      479127 474128 471133 472139 479140 486142 488148 487154
      485160 482168 483174 486180 488183 491184 498185 503189
      511196 523201 528202 533198 534195 536190 537187 537182
      537166 536160 534156 536154 543155 546153 552146 554138
 0.01 556889 556881 556873 555862 553856 550853 546851 542852
      532854 528859 522865 518868 514868 510858 506851 504850
      501852 495860 487874 483876 479874 476869 476865 472855
      467848 464846 459846 455847 451849 447851 445855 443858
      443863 448867 453869 455874 459884 460894 462899 465903
      470910 479923 486927 491927 496929 504929 507929 510927
      516920 520913 522907 522904 525903 532904 540905 544904
      548901 553895 556889
 0.01 520269 521262 520258 518252 513246 511244 508244 504244
      502240 498234 498213 493208 490206 487210 486215 486221
      487225 485231 483233 477234 470236 466239 461245 459247
      460251 460257 458260 456265 453268 445275 440281 436289
      432295 430304 431309 433310 436314 439315 452315 455316
      459315 464315 476310 482308 487306 497298 502293 506287
      513279 520269
 0.01 501106 501103 500101 500100 499099 497098 495097 494096
      492095 491096 492098 494099 495102 497102 498105 500108
      501106
 0.01 441757 439749 436747 434746 430747 427745 426742 425739
      426736 427730 426722 423720 420720 417726 416730 417734
      418745 417753 418759 419761 418778 416782 417786 417790
      419794 422799 426794 429788 433783 438767 441757
 0.01 434181 435174 434169 431166 427165 414170 404184 397191
      394194 388193 380188 373184 368181 362180 365176 371177
      375180 378180 373174 370173 367173 362172 362177 359179
      352182 354184 359186 366192 373198 381204 387210 396215
      399218 399225 392231 393235 396235 401234 405231 411226
      415222 416216 417213 419212 422210 425208 427202 423199
      419199 404206 401203 399201 400200 407194 410190 410186
      412182 415182 421188 424191 428190 432187 434181
 0.01 414158 410152 405147 403146 402151 402156 400159 394163
      392167 388168 387176 389178 392177 395176 398173 404170
      406170 404167 405163 407161 411160 414158 414158
 0.01 400793 398790 393791 389792 386795 383799 379802 376805
      376810 380810 385809 389806 392803 394801 397798 400793
      400793
 0.01 351186 350185 348184 347185 346187 345189 345191 344193
      345194 345196 345198 346199 347200 347201 348201 348199
      348196 348194 349192 349190 350188 351186 351186
 0.01 344182 344180 344178 345176 344173 343171 344169 343166
      341167 339167 339168 340170 340172 340173 341175 341177
      341179 342182 343183 344182
 0.01 305854 303851 302844 299836 296826 294822 293816 291812
      290805 288808 289814 289826 288837 283844 289852 295857
      298859 304857 305854
 0.25 500259 500258 498257 497257 498260 499260 500259
 0.25 476677 475670 474665 471658 465655 460651 454648 446651
      444653 443657 442667 444678 444683 442686 442693 443698
      447705 457716 461721 467724 470727 472726 471713 474695
      475687 476677
 0.25 450119 451117 450116 450117 449119 450120 450119
 0.25 388050 388049 388047 387046 385045 384045 383044 382044
      381045 380046 379046 378049 379050 381051 383051 384051
      385052 386052 388050 388050
 0.25 359967 361945 360932 356925 346914 344904 343895 341885
      339877 336868 335862 333860 331863 330869 328871 325870
      321869 318871 314879 312887 309893 306894 304893 303889
      299882 294876 288873 284875 284880 287888 290897 292904
      295908 297909 301911 306911 315922 319929 319932 317935
      313942 314947 315950 325960 334971 340976 348980 351980
      356978 359967
 0.25 284771 278766 277753 276743 274733 272732 270734 269737
      268747 265756 261764 266771 265776 262778 256785 252792
      251802 252808 255811 260816 268820 272818 273814 274808
      275803 280786 284771
 0.50 469686 468682 466680 463673 460669 455666 452668 451671
      449677 448685 450694 453700 457703 461704 465699 468694
      469686
 0.50 356956 356949 356942 354937 352932 347925 341918 337910
      337897 336891 335886 331883 327881 323874 320885 315905
      318914 323922 325927 326933 328937 329939 329943 330950
      332954 337962 342969 346971 350969 353962 356956
 0.50 301901 302899 302897 301895 300893 300892 300891 298889
      298888 296887 294885 294887 293888 293889 292891 292893
      293895 294897 295899 295900 296901 297902 299903 300902
      301901
 0.50 275791 276786 275780 272778 268778 261782 256787 253793
      252802 254808 258813 261814 266814 269812 271808 272801
      274793 275791
 1.00 346943 346941 345938 343934 342932 341929 339927 337926
      334926 331926 332928 334931 336934 337936 338939 340941
      341943 345944 346943
 1.00 330902 330900 329898 329897 327897 326897 325898 324899
      323900 322902 322903 323904 324906 326906 328905 328904
      329902 330902
 1.00 270791 270787 267787 263788 261788 258791 258793 257797
      258801 259803 262805 265806 267802 267800 268798 269794
      270791