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Quantitative Precipitation Forecast (QPF) Discussion
 
(Caution: Version displayed is not the latest version. - Issued 0943Z Oct 31, 2014)
 
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Abbreviations and acronyms used in this product
 
Geographic Boundaries -  Map 1: Color  Black/White       Map 2: Color  Black/White


QUANTITATIVE PRECIPITATION FORECAST DISCUSSION
NWS WEATHER PREDICTION CENTER COLLEGE PARK MD
543 AM EDT FRI OCT 31 2014


FINAL DAY 1...DAY 2 AND DAY 3 QPF DISCUSSION
VALID OCT 31/1200 UTC THRU NOV 03/1200 UTC
REFERENCE AWIPS GRAPHICS UNDER...PRECIP ACCUM - 24HR


MADE ONLY VERY MINOR CHANGES TO THE PRELIM DAY 1 QPF..BASED MOSTLY
ON RECENT RADAR IMAGERY/TRENDS.

DAY 1...

...PACIFIC NORTHWEST DOWN INTO CA AND WESTERN PARTS OF NV...

THERE CONTINUES TO BE GOOD AGREEMENT DAY 1 WITH THE EASTWARD PUSH
OF THE ELONGATED NORTH TO SOUTH MID/UPPER TROF OVER THE NORTHEAST
PACIFIC..WITH SIGNIFICANT HEIGHT FALLS MOVING INTO THE WEST COAST
STATES AND STRONGER S/WV ENERGY DROPPING INTO THE BASE OF THE TROF
AND MAINLY IMPACTING CA INTO NV ON FRIDAY NIGHT.  THIS REINFORCING
SHOT OF ENERGY CAN BE SEEN ON WATER VAPOR PIX AT THIS TIME
VICINITY OF 35-40N/140W..WITH THE MODEL MASS FIELD FORECASTS DOING
A VERY GOOD JOB WITH IT.  GIVEN THE STRONG MID LEVEL
DYNAMICS/FORCING/HEIGHT FALLS AND A SLUG OF GREATER THAN 1 INCH
PWS THAT WILL BE DRAWN WELL INLAND INTO CA..EXPECT WIDESPREAD
MODERATE TO LOCALLY HEAVY PRECIPITATION TOTALS THRU MUCH OF
NORTHERN AND CENTRAL CA..AND ESPECIALLY IN THE SIERRA AND THE
COASTAL RANGES.  OVERALL..THE QPF DISTRIBUTIONS REMAIN SIMILAR
AMONG THE LATEST MODELS..WITH THE IN-HOUSE PSEUDO BIAS CORRECTED
MEAN USED BUT WITH SOME MINOR ADJUSTMENT FROM SOME OF THE HIGHER
RESOLUTION GUIDANCE.  SIGNIFICANT SNOWS ARE LIKELY FOR THE
NORTHERN AND CENTRAL SIERRA..PLEASE SEE THE QPFHSD FOR DETAILS. 
FARTHER NORTH..UP INTO THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST..WEAKER LARGE SCALE
FORCING SHOULD SUPPORT GENERALLY LIGHT PRECIPITATION AMOUNTS MUCH
OF WA AND OR INT WESTERN ID.


...EASTERN GREAT LAKES..MID AND UPPER OH VALLEY INTO THE
CENTRAL/SOUTHERN APPALACHIANS...

THE VERY STRONG H5 VORT NOW VICINITY OF THE NORTHERN GREAT LAKES
WILL CONTINUE TO DIVE SOUTH- SOUTHEASTWARD THIS PERIOD INTO THE
SOUTHERN APPALACHIANS BY SATURDAY MORNING..WITH CONTINUED
AMPLIFICATION INTO A CLOSED H5 CENTER BY LATER FRIDAY
AFTERNOON/NIGHT.  IMPRESSIVE LARGE SCALE LIFT AHEAD OF THIS
AMPLIFYING SYSTEM WILL SUPPORT INCREASINGLY WIDESPREAD GENERALLY
LIGHT TO MODERATE PRECIPITATION..GIVEN THE HIGHER MOISTURE/PWS
REMAIN WELL OFF TO THE EAST IN THE WESTERN ATLANTIC AND THERE IS
NO CHANCE OF ANY RETURN MOISTURE FROM THE GULF.  STUCK CLOSE TO
THE IN-HOUSE PSEUDO BIAS CORRECTED QPF AGAIN SINCE MOST OF THE
GLOBAL AND HIRES QPFS WERE FAIRLY SIMILAR.  SOM EARLY SEASON HEAVY
WET SNOWS LIKELY FOR THE HIGHER ELEVATIONS OF THE CENTRAL AND
SOUTHERN APPALACHIANS..PLEASE SEE THE WINTER WEATHER GRAPHICS FOR
DETAILS.


...SOUTH TX...

FRONTAL CONVERGENCE ALONG AND AHEAD OF THE SOUTHWARD MOVING FRONT
THRU SOUTHERN TX WILL SUPPORT CONTINUED SHOWERS/EMBEDDED
THUNDERSTORMS AT LEAST THRU THE DAY FRIDAY.  SOME VARIABILITY WITH
QPF DETAILS CONTINUED AMONG THE LATEST MODELS..WITH THE HIRES
MODELS AGAIN A BIT MORE EMPHATIC ABOUT SOME LOCALLY HEAVIER
RAINFALL AMOUNTS.  DAY 1 QPF LEANED TOWARD THE IN-HOUSE PSEUDO
BIAS CORRECTED MEAN FOR DETAILS GIVEN THE VARIABILITY IN MODEL
SOLUTIONS..WITH LESS WEIGHT GIVEN TO THE HIRES SOLUTIONS GIVEN THE
CELLS WILL BE RATHER QUICK MOVING.


DAYS 2-3...


...WESTERN UNITED STATES...

A MID LEVEL LONG WAVE TROUGH COMING ASHORE OVER THE WESTERN UNITED
STATES ON DAY 2 SPLITS INTO TWO PIECES ON DAY 3. THE NORTHERN
SYSTEM WILL AFFECT THE NORTHERN ROCKIES...WHILE THE SOUTHERN
SYSTEM AFFECTS THE FOUR CORNERS AREA. THE ECMWF HAS BEEN THE MOST
CONSISTENT WITH THE LONG WAVE TROUGH AND ITS EVOLUTION INTO TWO
PIECES...WHILE THE 00Z NAM AND GFS APPEAR TO BE TOO FAST WITH THE
NORTHERN STREAM SYSTEM. BECAUSE OF THIS...THE WPC QPF WAS BASED
PRIMARILY ON THE 00Z ECMWF...WITH SOME 21Z SREF MEAN USED TO
BETTER DELINEATE THE HIGHER TERRAIN QPF MAXIMA.

A STRONG MID LEVEL LONG WAVE COMES ASHORE ACROSS THE WESTERN
UNITED STATES EARLY ON DAY 2. THE COMBINATION OF DYNAMIC LIFT WITH
THE LONG WAVE TROUGH AND UPSLOPE IN THE LOW LEVEL WESTERLY FLOW
SHOULD PRODUCE A SWATH OF 0.25 TO 0.50 INCHES OF QPF ACROSS THE
SIERRA NEVADA RANGE...WITH LESSER AMOUNTS ACROSS THE COASTAL RANGE
OF CENTRAL CA INTO THE CASCADES OF OR. THE NORTHERN PORTION OF THE
LONG WAVE BECOMES A POTENT SHORT WAVE THAT BEGINS TO TAKE ON A
NEGATIVE TILT TOWARD THE END OF THE PERIOD. A LOW LEVEL LOW
COALESCES ACROSS EAST CENTRAL ID AND WESTERN MT AHEAD OF THE SHORT
WAVE DURING THE SECOND HALF OF THE PERIOD. THE BEST MID LEVEL LIFT
OCCURS OVER EAST CENTRAL ID AND SOUTHWEST MT DURING THE SECOND
HALF OF THE PERIOD...AS THERE IS A MULTI MODEL SIGNAL THAT A
TROWAL DEVELOPS ON THE NORTH SIDE OF THE CLOSING MID LEVEL SHORT
WAVE OVER THE REGION DURING THE 02/06Z TO 02/12Z TIME FRAME.

AN EAST TO NORTHEAST LOW LEVEL FLOW SHOULD FOCUS THE AVAILABLE
MOISTURE ON THE HIGHER TERRAIN OF THE BITTERROOT RANGE IN ID AND
THE ROCKY MOUNTAIN FRONT RANGE IN MT...PRODUCING A LARGE AREA OF
0.75 TO 1.25 INCHES OF ACROSS ACROSS CENTRAL ID INTO SOUTHWEST MT
AND EXTREME NORTHWEST WY FOR DAY 2. THE NORTHERN SYSTEM CLOSES AS
IT EXITS INTO SASKATCHEWAN DURING DAY 3. THE BULK OF THE MID LEVEL
LIFT IN THE TROWAL WRINGS OUT THE MOISTURE OVER NORTHWEST MT...AND
A LARGE AREA OF 0.25 TO 0.50 INCHES OF QPF WAS PLACED HERE FOR DAY
3.

FURTHER SOUTH...THE SOUTHERN PORTION OF THE LOW WAVE TROUGH DIGS
INTO GREAT BASIN AND SOUTHWEST STATES DURING DAY 3...WHILE
MAINTAINING A POSITIVE TILT. IN THE BROAD MID LEVEL SOUTHWEST FLOW
AHEAD OF THE TROUGH...MOISTURE THAT HAS ITS ORIGIN IN THE PACIFIC
SOUTH OF 20N STARTS STREAMING INTO MEXICO AND THE SOUTHWEST
STATES. PRECIPITABLE WATER VALUES INCREASE TO 0.75 INCHES DURING
DAY 3...AND THIS MOISTURE...COMBINED WITH MARGINAL INSTABILITY FED
BY STEEPENING MID LEVEL LAPSE RATES...SHOULD RESULT IN AN AREA OF
0.10 TO 0.25 INCHES OF QPF ACROSS SOUTHEAST NV...SOUTHERN UT INTO
NORTHERN AND CENTRAL AZ.

FURTHER NORTH...A SHORT WAVE TRACKING ACROSS SOUTHERN UT AND CO
WILL INDUCE CYCLOGENESIS ON A LOW LEVEL BAROCLINIC ZONE OVER CO.
INCREASING WINDS NORTH OF THE DEVELOPING LOW LEVEL CIRCULATION
WILL PRODUCE A LARGE AREA OF UPSLOPE FLOW ACROSS CENTRAL CO. THE
COMBINATION OF UPSLOPE AND DYNAMIC LIFT ASSOCIATED WITH THE SHORT
WAVE SHOULD MAKE THE MOST OF THE AVAILABLE MOISTURE TO RESULT IN A
LARGE ARES OF 0.25 TO 0.50 INCHES OF QPF OVER EASTERN UT AND MUCH
OF WESTERN CO...WITH A MAXIMUM NEAR 0.75 INCHES OVER THE ROCKIES
OF CENTRAL CO.

SNOWFALL IS EXPECTED ACROSS THE HIGHER TERRAIN OF THE WESTERN
UNITED STATES DURING THIS PERIOD. PLEASE REFER TO THE LATEST SUITE
OF WINTER WEATHER PRODUCTS FOR MORE INFORMATION.


...MID ATLANTIC/NORTHEAST...

A STRONG SHORT WAVE OVER THE UPPER MIDWEST EARLY THIS MORNING WILL
DROP INTO THE BOTTOM OF A DEVELOPING LONG WAVE TROUGH OVER THE
EASTERN UNITED STATES...CLOSING OFF AS IT REACHES THE SOUTHEAST
STATES EARLY ON DAY 2. THE CLOSED LOW THEN OPENS UP AS IT TRACKS
NORTHEAST OVER THE WESTERN ATLANTIC...INDUCING CYCLOGENESIS ON A
LOW LEVEL BAROCLINIC ZONE STRETCHING FROM THE MID ATLANTIC TO EAST
OF NEW ENGLAND. THERE IS STILL SOME MODEL SPREAD IN THE SEQUENCE
OF EVENTS...ESPECIALLY FROM LATE DAY 2 INTO DAY 3...WITH THE
GREATEST POTENTIAL IMPACT FOR NEW ENGLAND ON DAY 3. THE 00Z GFS
SEEMS APPEARS TO BE TOO FAR WEST WITH THE MID LEVEL AND SURFACE
SYSTEMS...WITH THE 00Z ECMWF/UKMET COMBINATION OFFERING A MORE
STABLE SOLUTION. BECAUSE OF THIS...THE WPC QPF WAS BASED ON A
BLEND OF THE 00Z ECMWF/UKMET...THOUGH SOME 21Z SREF MEAN WAS USED
TO BETTER DELINEATE THE HIGHER TERRAIN QPF ACROSS THE SOUTHERN
APPALACHIANS ON DAY 2.

DAY 2 STARTS WITH A VERY STRONG CLOSED MID LEVEL SYSTEM (WITH 500
MB HEIGHTS BETWEEN 4 AND 5 STANDARD DEVIATIONS BELOW NORMAL) OVER
GA/SC. AS THE MID LEVEL SYSTEM PASSES OVER AHEAD OF THE
SOUTHEAST/SOUTHERN MID ATLANTIC STATES EARLY IN THE PERIOD...THE
COMBINATION OF STRONG DYNAMIC LIFT AND MARGINAL INSTABILITY DUE TO
VERY STEEP MID LEVEL LAPSE RATES (NEAR 8.0 C/KM EARLY),....A SWATH
OF 0.25 TO 0.50 INCHES OF QPF IS EXPECTED OVER NORTHEAST SC INTO
SOUTHEAST NC. FURTHER WEST...THE LOW LEVEL CIRCULATION BEHIND THE
CLOSED MID LEVEL SYSTEM FUELS UPSLOPE PRECIPITATION ACROSS
PORTIONS OF THE CENTRAL AND SOUTHERN APPALACHIANS...AND LOCAL 0.25
INCH QPF STRIPES WERE PLACED OVER EAST CENTRAL WV AND WESTERNMOST
NC TO ACCOUNT FOR THIS.

THE MID LEVEL SYSTEM OPENS UP AND LIFTS OUT INTO THE ATLANTIC NEAR
THE MID ATLANTIC COAST DURING THE SECOND HALF OF DAY 2. THE STRONG
LIFT WILL AID IN CYCLOGENESIS OFF THE MID ATLANTIC COAST (PROBABLY
OFF THE SOUTHERN DELMARVA COAST)..WHICH OCCURS DURING THE LAST
PART OF THE PERIOD ON A LOW LEVEL BAROCLINIC ZONE. SEVERAL
ATTEMPTS AT CYCLOGENESIS ON THIS ZONE OCCUR LATE ON DAY 2...BEFORE
THE MAIN LOW COALESCES EAST OF THE NC COAST ON DAY 3. THE TRACK OF
THE LOW THEN BECOMES THE KEY FORECAST QUESTION FOR NEW
ENGLAND...MAINLY DURING THE SECOND HALF OF DAY 3.

AS MENTIONED EARLIER...THE 00Z GFS APPEARS TO DEVELOP THE SURFACE
LOW TOO FAR WEST...AND TRACKS CLOSE TO THE NORTHERN NEW ENGLAND
COAST. THE 00Z UKMET AND ECMWF ARE A BIT FURTHER EAST...TAKING THE
SURFACE AND 850 MB LOWS JUST OUTSIDE THE BENCHMARK AND OVER NOVA
SCOTIA LATE IN THE PERIOD. THE 850 MB LOW TRACK WOULD ALLOW
ISENTROPIC LIFT TO SPREAD MOISTURE NORTHWEST OF THE LOW
TRACKS...AFFECTING MAINLY EASTERN MA AND CENTRAL AND EASTERN ME.
AT THIS POINT...A BLEND OF THE 00Z ECMWF/UKMET QPF SOLUTIONS
SHOULD BRING THE 0.50 INCH QPF CONTOUR THROUGH EASTERN MA INTO
DOWNEAST ME...WITH THE 0.10 INCH CONTOUR BACK THROUGH CENTRAL NEW
ENGLAND INTO SOUTHEAST NEW AND SOUTHWEST ME. THIS REPRESENTS A
WESTWARD DISPLACEMENT OF THESE CONTOURS FROM 24 HOURS AGO...AND IS
IMPORTANT FOR PORTIONS OF EASTERN ME AS COLD AIR IS AVAILABLE FOR
SNOWFALL. IF THE 00Z ECMWF/UKMET TRACK BECOMES FURTHER WEST WITH
FUTURE MODEL RUNS...A WESTWARD ADJUSTMENT OF THE HIGHER QPF COULD
BECOME NECESSARY.

SNOWFALL IS EXPECTED ON DAY 2 ACROSS THE HIGHER TERRAIN OF THE
SOUTHERN APPALACHIANS...AND IS POSSIBLE ACROSS DOWNEAST ME ON DAY
3. PLEASE REFER TO THE LATEST SUITE OF WINTER WEATHER PRODUCTS FOR
MORE INFORMATION.


TERRY/HAYES


GRAPHICS AVAILABLE ON THE WEB AT www.wpc.ncep.noaa.gov/qpf/qpf2.shtml

24HR QP VT 01/12Z
 0.01 541178 541173 540166 537156 531153 521150 497157 492157
      488156 482155 478152 475151 471152 464153 453157 441164
      434166 425167 419166 414164 410165 403166 395165 389165
      384159 376157 369160 363165 356168 327161 324160 320163
      318168 319172 319177 321181 325189 331199 330209 331214
      333217 339222 344230 347233 351234 357239 369247 374248
      375251 384253 393257 399259 404260 411261 421262 429263
      434261 436255 438254 443255 446255 451255 457257 461259
      466261 469263 477267 485269 490274 498279 503281 505274
      505268 501258 498251 492244 490241 486238 484236 485233
      488233 492234 496234 498233 504229 510222 514216 517214
      522214 528219 531219 533217 535207 536196 541178
 0.01 480797 478788 475782 472779 469777 466774 465771 464765
      462762 461757 458754 453751 452750 448750 443752 437757
      429764 418771 413774 407775 401777 393779 383781 376780
      363776 357774 352771 350769 350766 357764 366759 373756
      375755 378757 388761 391762 395762 401760 406755 408750
      409746 410739 411728 412720 415715 424704 430696 444677
      452666 460652 463645 462640 461637 455634 448633 437635
      426637 420640 413640 400644 393647 387652 376662 357680
      340695 331702 326707 322712 317716 313721 303733 297743
      292748 288753 285758 283765 282771 279774 270781 265786
      262790 253798 247804 244810 243816 242823 244832 247835
      249836 255833 258830 263819 267808 272804 278801 284802
      290805 298807 305805 311805 320804 324804 327805 330807
      331811 333819 336826 341835 342844 344850 349860 354864
      358863 360861 369860 372859 375862 398874 406878 418879
      426880 434880 441879 445876 452873 455874 457876 461883
      461890 463894 465898 467898 468893 468889 470885 469880
      468878 468873 465859 464852 463843 463837 464834 467827
      471823 475816 477811 479805 480797
 0.01 397083 394075 389070 385072 382069 380065 377062 370058
      367056 365053 359053 356055 352055 354057 357058 360058
      362061 358067 357069 359071 358073 357082 353086 351090
      351094 352097 358096 365093 371095 374096 376100 378098
      380094 381090 383087 386088 390084 394085 397083 397083
 0.01 298027 298020 298012 297004 296996 294991 291983 285974
      279969 274967 268967 263967 260970 259976 256977 253976
      244975 239976 235979 232982 230985 232991 235994 240001
      244004 249006 256010 270021 277026 281025 285026 294031
      298027
 0.25 530202 530186 529175 526170 522166 517164 513164 504167
      497169 494174 491181 491191 489197 485201 478205 469207
      462210 458214 459220 464223 469224 479224 487224 492223
      496220 498215 498208 498203 502201 506200 510201 516203
      522203 530202 530202
 0.25 460175 461171 460168 457167 455168 453169 451171 448172
      447175 446179 448181 452181 454180 456178 458177 460175
 0.25 463797 462794 459790 453788 441786 433785 427783 423783
      419785 414787 406791 401792 386795 371791 365791 359792
      350795 347798 346801 345809 348816 351822 351832 351841
      356843 362849 369849 377848 383846 395839 400836 403836
      406838 410839 415838 421836 435832 442828 448825 458817
      461812 462807 463797
 0.25 443654 432653 424650 414650 405654 396661 388669 376683
      360700 348714 340722 333729 320742 305758 300764 295771
      291776 291780 294782 298783 302785 312787 317786 323784
      332777 339770 345762 351756 359748 364745 368743 374741
      379742 388743 394741 398737 400732 402726 404716 408705
      413695 419686 425678 431670 439661 442658 443654
 0.25 442222 439219 436218 428219 424219 420217 417215 416213
      417208 419203 425199 431195 435191 437187 436183 432181
      427181 421183 415186 412188 407188 403187 399188 384188
      366180 352182 348181 345178 340171 336171 335174 335181
      337191 337201 338210 343215 354227 360231 368234 376234
      385235 388233 392233 398234 408234 415233 423232 428230
      437226 442222
 0.25 432871 431867 429866 426865 424865 421863 417863 414864
      411866 409868 410871 412873 416874 419874 423874 426874
      430873 432871
 0.25 407806 406803 404802 403802 401803 400804 399806 399807
      398809 398811 398812 399814 400816 401816 402816 404814
      404813 405812 406810 406808 407807 407806
 0.25 377078 377076 377073 377071 376070 375069 375068 373067
      371068 372071 372073 372074 372075 373077 374079 376079
      377078
 0.25 285999 286995 285991 284989 283985 282983 281981 279978
      275977 273978 272982 273986 273989 275993 276995 277997
      279999 282000 285999
 0.25 269007 267003 264000 261998 257996 253995 249994 248995
      250998 253001 256003 260005 264007 267009 269007
 0.50 523189 524182 522175 517171 512171 507172 502176 498178
      497182 498185 502189 508192 515194 520194 523189
 0.50 455806 455803 454801 453801 451801 450801 449802 448803
      447804 447806 446807 447809 449810 450810 452810 454809
      454808 455807 455806
 0.50 423665 422661 418659 414659 408661 401664 395669 383682
      374693 361706 351716 340729 329739 318751 310762 307767
      307771 309775 313777 320776 328772 334767 339762 350751
      356746 364740 369736 377732 384727 390721 397707 402700
      407693 415682 421673 423665
 0.50 413226 414222 413218 408215 402207 404200 401197 390196
      383193 379190 370185 362183 357184 353186 352191 356193
      360194 363195 364198 365202 367205 365209 358209 355208
      354205 352200 348197 344195 342199 341204 344209 348212
      354216 357221 360224 365227 372227 377226 384219 389217
      394219 400222 403225 406228 410228 413226
 0.50 420870 419868 417868 417870 419871 420870
 0.50 390831 389826 386825 383822 379817 376812 379806 379803
      376803 372803 368799 364799 361800 356803 355808 357810
      364809 366809 366813 362817 360823 356835 357837 361836
      366835 372836 378835 386835 390831
 1.00 411673 408672 404674 399678 392685 388691 384695 375702
      364710 357717 349727 343735 327753 325759 330763 335760
      339757 347747 355740 365733 373726 381716 386707 389700
      392695 400686 404684 408680 411673
 1.00 389205 387204 385203 383202 383203 383204 385206 388207
      391208 393207 392206 389205
 1.00 372195 376198 377198 377196 375193 371188 367187 365187
      364188 365191 368193 372195
 1.50 369721 369716 366716 363717 361718 359720 357723 355726
      354728 353731 354735 355735 357733 359731 362729 364727
      366725 367723 369721 

24HR QP VT 02/12Z
 0.01 492612 494626 495633 494638 492643 493651 492663 490673
      486682 482692 477699 473706 467712 460719 455721 452725
      448727 446729 443728 434729 426733 422740 420744 422750
      428756 442766 445768 448772 450776 452782 450792 448796
      450799 452809 448809 444808 436805 430806 427809 425813
      426816 428817 432817 436816 440815 443816 449816 449821
      447829 443829 440826 434826 431827 429829 420831 417832
      413830 410826 409823 407818 402818 397819 393818 386818
      382820 379823 374831 371835 370836 368834 366834 363838
      358844 355846 350847 347846 348842 347836 345832 338828
      326813 318811 311805 306801 301794 297787 292780 291776
      293771 296762 301760 304758 309749 313742 314738 314734
      312724 315716 318712 321709 329704 334703 338700 349697
      355691 360685 366669 371661 379654 387650 396646 405645
      414643 424640 428638 430634
 0.01 517278 518273 519267 519260 518256 516254 513254 505252
      497253 493252 489249 484245 476244 470244 466244 464243
      464240 467237 465236 461230 458230 455228 457224 462224
      465224 467223 467218 465215 457214 453213 449213 444208
      440206 437204 436198 438193 441196 445197 459191 464187
      467182 472176 475176 477179 480181 483181 491181 500181
      505182 508181 511182 514180 518181 522181 524179 529179
      529177 528173 524164 519158 516155 515149 515143 517138
      519125 521114 521102 521094 521082 520076 522071 522065
      518064 516065 514063 514059 515053 514049 510042 499031
      497028 494025 491033 487044 483050 476056 470060 466060
      463062 459062 456063 443067 431068 433071 434077 434081
      437083 438086 436087 431086 427084 425082 423079 420082
      419086 417089 415089 413087 413084 413078 414073 417069
      418059 413055 403055 396057 391062 385060 380054 372052
      369054 375058 379060 378062 375062 371060 368059 365060
      363064 365068 368070 369075 370079 371082 370086 361098
      357099 354097 348094 345094 346097 348108 347110 344111
      343114 345121 351144 354144 357143 360143 364140 366140
      368142 369148 361153 360157 363161 366164 368168 364170
      360169 356175 356182 350185 351189 354191 361196 366200
      368203 368207 365208 361208 358212 356212 351205 344200
      342191 342185 345182 344174 344169 343166 338165 331161
      322158 316159 314162 316165 321170 332179 334186 335196
      338204 340208 343211 355221 366233 379241 385247 391252
      396257 403260 411262 417261 425259 431256 445251 451250
      461251 470251 478254 482256 484260 488267 489275 492283
      498287 504286 512284 517278
 0.01 395193 395191 394189 394188 393187 392186 391183 390181
      388183 389185 390185 391188 391190 392191 393193 394194
      395193
 0.01 403929 404924 402920 398915 393912 385913 371916 361922
      355925 353927 353930 359934 364937 369942 371949 373958
      373962 375964 379963 381962 386957 393947 400936 403929
 0.01 392110 391105 388100 385098 381099 377098 376092 371093
      370097 369104 369107 371109 375111 378110 382112 387112
      391110 392110
 0.01 370118 369115 369113 367111 366111 364111 362111 360112
      359114 358114 357116 358118 360118 361118 363119 365120
      367120 368119 370118
 0.01 280024 280018 278015 271010 267008 264005 259998 252994
      247993 243994 242996 244000 250006 254008 257010 258015
      261017 266024 270026 276026 280024
 0.01 271828 269826 269824 267822 265820 261820 257820 255819
      254821 251822 252825 254826 258827 260828 263828 265829
      269829 271828
 0.25 482616 483626 483636 480651 478659 476666 473672 469676
      459684 451694 447698 443703 439709 434713 424720 415729
      407736 403742 402746 402751 401758 397763 392766 386766
      374764 370764 366765 361767 356770 352775 349781 347785
      348790 349799 350809 349812 346813 341812 337811 335808
      335803 334799 332797 326795 320794 314792 311788 308780
      308773 308766 310760 314755 323746 326740 327736 330731
      337727 342724 347719 354709 361700 368689 375678 380668
      384663 390660 404656 418653 429648 441640 458624
 0.25 503152 504138 506123 504114 498106 492101 489098 487094
      485089 483085 478087 471092 465099 463102 460103 454101
      451099 442097 433099 429106 424112 419113 414112 409112
      407116 419126 419134 419141 417147 415151 412153 408156
      406158 402166 400180 402188 405192 410193 413193 418194
      423193 426191 432185 439183 443182 446185 451186 454184
      461181 465174 468170 471169 479167 486163 488159 492158
      495158 498156 503152
 0.25 437228 438226 437224 436224 434225 432226 431227 430229
      431230 433231 435231 435230 437228 437228
 0.25 401244 400243 399242 397241 395240 394240 392239 390238
      389238 387238 388240 388241 390242 391243 393244 395245
      396245 397245 398245 400244 401244
 0.25 403216 400209 394202 391198 386197 378192 369188 364187
      362189 368195 376200 382206 389213 397217 401218 403216
 0.25 392798 392796 391796 390795 388796 386797 384798 383800
      381802 380805 379807 380808 382808 383807 384806 385806
      387805 388804 388803 390802 392801 392800 392798
 0.25 391073 391070 390070 389069 388070 387071 386072 385074
      384074 385074 387075 388073 390073 391073
 0.25 379078 379075 379071 378069 376066 373065 371064 369063
      370066 372068 373071 373075 374080 375082 379080 379078
 0.25 369815 368813 366813 363816 361818 359821 358823 357826
      356828 358830 361827 362825 364823 365820 367818 369815
 0.50 494145 495141 493138 491132 492127 489121 483112 479107
      473107 468109 464113 458123 455125 449124 451121 453117
      452113 450107 445105 440106 438108 437112 442115 443121
      439134 436140 435149 437155 440159 446162 446170 449175
      454177 460168 465167 471166 475164 479160 480156 479153
      478147 477142 480140 486144 490145 494145
 0.50 476636 475629 472624 462632 454640 447648 436651 424656
      414662 410664 404665 397667 393670 384678 376687 370695
      362704 356714 351722 343730 314764 312770 312778 315785
      320788 325789 333789 338786 342783 354764 359761 365759
      379757 383757 386757 388754 390748 394743 404722 407719
      414716 419713 423712 432704 438696 446688 456680 460677
      464673 470663 473657 475649 476636
 1.00 471160 470158 469154 467152 465149 463147 461145 458144
      454143 452146 454150 456152 458155 460158 461159 464161
      466162 468162 471160
 1.00 444666 442664 437665 428668 421673 417679 413685 407687
      394684 389684 385686 380693 372705 354730 348735 343741
      337756 339758 336760 338765 341766 351756 356752 364747
      372745 378746 382744 387738 392732 395725 396715 396705
      401697 404691 405689 409690 415692 421687 434677 440672
      444666
 1.50 395696 393692 390689 387689 385692 377705 373713 368720
      366723 365727 359733 348743 345747 345751 346755 349753
      355747 360741 362738 366735 369734 372734 375736 380735
      386728 388726 388720 386716 385712 390705 394697 395696
 1.50 345756 344755 342757 342758 344758 345756 

24HR QP VT 03/12Z
 0.01 494611 500624 507638 512653 515660 517669 518679 520691
      521702 521710 521715 519717 516717 514715 510712 505707
      501703 496702 484700 476693 472689 465689 452695 439699
      426700 416708 406715 398724 388733 378740 377742 373743
      365745 354751 344757 334765 329769 326771 322772 309773
      299768 294764 292757 292750 296744 299739 303735 310726
      310722 311719 315714 338700 343697 347693 350689 355683
      396652 399650 401648 407641
 0.01 488340 490336 493332 495327 498322 500317 502312 504308
      507303 509299 511294 513289 516283 518278 519275 520271
      523264 524254 523248 518243 515237 512231 510225 508219
      504213 499210 486206 476209 465211 456216 447219 441221
      437223 435228 441232 437236 434242 428255 423258 421262
      419271 420276 423282 427286 432290 438292 449291 458290
      462289 462294 460303 456322 456326
 0.01 557031 557019 558004 558999 557994 556988 555984 550967
      547960 542955 538952 530952 528953 524954 518957 517964
      522969 524976 520977 517977 514980 510988 509009 518018
      518021 516022 512022 506023 504024 502029 502039 497041
      493046 492052 490054 486055 483057 478060 472063 469068
      467073 466077 462096 457096 454095 452093 444091 440091
      436092 432097 428103 426106 426110 429117 434121 436124
      439124 442125 443128 440137 434152 434160 438168 445177
      448180 451181 457180 461175 457168 464165 470165 476163
      481160 486155 491151 526110 533096 538092 542086 545079
      547070 549060 553051 557031
 0.01 454971 454965 452964 449966 445966 440971 435978 428995
      426002 418003 403035 399039 397050 388049 383054 381051
      377050 370048 359056 356059 355062 358069 361076 359082
      357084 354087 353091 357098 355101 353102 350104 346102
      346098 346093 346087 343087 338086 334087 331094 329106
      330110 332114 342124 347129 353133 356132 360134 360143
      363152 364154 362156 359153 358151 354153 357158 361161
      364160 367163 364167 361167 359166 356163 357168 357174
      361179 362184 365186 368187 370185 372183 370180 367174
      371167 376160 379159 384160 388159 390156 393152 393147
      392137 391128 391125 392122 394117 398116 405112 411108
      411103 410099 408092 408086 410082 413080 415076 417065
      417062 419059 422053 425043 428034 429022 432015 447986
      454971
 0.01 416842 416832 413826 410821 407815 401804 397800 393798
      390801 388804 388808 387815 388824 389833 391840 392847
      394853 395858 396862 400867 402864 405857 408852 411849
      416842
 0.01 388924 387919 384913 382900 376893 367887 363887 361892
      362897 365903 369911 371919 369925 370933 371937 377936
      381934 385930 387925 388924
 0.01 338058 337054 334051 329046 324044 320047 317047 315045
      308042 300040 295039 293041 289047 289052 292054 297059
      304063 307066 305070 300076 290077 287077 285075 280069
      277067 272066 264067 256069 250074 244069 234068 229068
      225069 225072 226076 231081 239085 245088 252093 257098
      265101 274102 283102 292100 300100 307098 311097 313094
      315090 317085 320078 324072 327069 331068 333069 335065
      337060 338058
 0.01 267786 266781 261784 257787 254790 247796 239803 236812
      234817 234824 237828 242827 244822 245817 248806 251802
      254800 262793 267786
 0.01 252982 251980 249978 247976 245974 244972 242970 240967
      237966 235967 234971 234975 236977 239979 242980 244981
      246982 250983 252982
 0.25 476618 482626 489631 494632 497634 501648 503653 505662
      505665 502667 499664 496663 492665 486674 482676 476677
      468679 464682 458682 453682 447684 437688 428688 419687
      414687 409688 405689 401693 394700 380714 371720 364726
      361730 359734 353742 349745 344746 338746 333747 328745
      327740 328734 330730 335721 341714 349707 355705 370691
      378684 386679 394673 402666 407657 414650 420642 426635
 0.25 479336 479333 479331 478331 478328 478327 476325 475323
      473322 471323 470325 469327 468329 468330 468331
 0.25 516272 517267 517259 516254 514248 509241 506237 501235
      496235 494240 489239 473244 470238 467235 465234 462238
      463241 464243 469244 473246 473254 470258 473262 478269
      483277 486287 492295 495298 500298 512287 514278 516272
 0.25 537070 538064 536059 537051 537043 536037 533037 524044
      516054 506060 496069 492074 489081 484095 478111 469118
      462121 460128 460148 463154 466155 469153 477143 496128
      505120 513111 522099 525095 529090 534078 537070
 0.25 457261 457259 455257 455251 455248 453246 449248 447253
      446258 444263 441269 441272 443274 447272 450269 454265
      456263 457261
 0.25 440276 441273 440272 438272 437272 435273 434274 434275
      435276 436277 437278 438278 439277 440276
 0.25 408075 410066 409056 406056 400058 391065 382069 376069
      374071 375075 375082 377085 378089 378096 382101 385106
      390107 395103 398099 403086 408075
 0.25 365106 366103 365102 363102 362103 361104 360105 359106
      358107 359109 360109 362108 364108 364107 365106
 0.25 352119 351117 349116 348116 347119 348120 350120 352119
 0.25 310090 310083 305081 294083 287082 281080 272076 268074
      265077 257082 256085 258087 262089 269095 275098 281098
      292096 302095 307093 310090
 0.50 463623 468629 473634 477639 481647 483650 483656 481664
      475669 468673 462676 455676 448676 439678 426676 420673
      415667 415661 416657 420652 430641 442631 444629
 0.50 512276 513261 514253 511247 507245 503245 500248 494248
      491245 487249 484252 486259 491268 492273 493280 494286
      497289 505285 509283 512277 512276
 0.50 526084 525078 521075 516072 510073 503078 500082 497087
      492096 490105 491114 495116 500116 507109 513103 520094
      526085 526084
 0.50 403076 404070 401067 398067 394069 390072 387074 385077
      383083 384088 387092 392092 395089 398085 400082 402078
      403076
 0.50 387691 384690 380691 377693 376694 372697 371699 369702
      369705 370707 374706 376705 379703 380701 382699 384696
      386694 387691
 0.50 350729 350725 349723 347721 343721 342724 341726 341730
      340733 342737 343737 346736 348734 350731 350729
 0.50 309089 306085 303084 294086 291087 288087 279083 270079
      266081 264086 264088 267091 276095 287096 296094 304093
      309089
 1.00 464658 461651 459648 455646 452645 447647 444650 441655
      442659 445661 449662 451664 455665 460664 463660 464658
 1.00 440658 439655 437654 436655 435654 434654 432655 432658
      433660 435659 437660 438659 440658
 1.00 307089 306088 304088 302087 301087 299087 297087 296088
      295089 294090 293091 292092 293092 295093 296092 297092
      298092 300092 302092 304092 305091 306090 307089
 1.00 277088 277086 277085 275084 275083 274082 272082 270082
      269083 269085 269087 271089 272089 273090 275090 277088
      277088